Mont. Code § 41-3-423
Title 41. Minors
Chapter 3. Child Abuse and Neglect
Part 4. Abuse or Neglect Proceedings
§ 41-3-423. Reasonable efforts required to prevent removal of child or to return -- exemption -- findings -- permanency plan
(1) The department shall make reasonable efforts to prevent the necessity of removal of a child from the child's home and to reunify families that have been separated by the state. Reasonable efforts include but are not limited to voluntary protective services agreements, development of individual written case plans specifying state efforts to reunify families, placement in the least disruptive setting possible, provision of services pursuant to a case plan, and periodic review of each case to ensure timely progress toward reunification or permanent placement. In determining preservation or reunification services to be provided and in making reasonable efforts at providing preservation or reunification services, the child's health and safety are of paramount concern.
(2) Except in a proceeding subject to the federal Indian Child Welfare Act, the department may, at any time during an abuse and neglect proceeding, make a request for a determination that preservation or reunification services need not be provided. If an indigent parent is not already represented by counsel, the court shall immediately provide for the appointment or assignment of counsel to represent the indigent parent in accordance with the provisions of 41-3-425. A court may make a finding that the department need not make reasonable efforts to provide preservation or reunification services if the court finds that the parent has:
(a) subjected a child to aggravated circumstances, including but not limited to abandonment, torture, chronic abuse, or sexual abuse or chronic, severe neglect of a child;
(b) committed, aided, abetted, attempted, conspired, or solicited deliberate or mitigated deliberate homicide of a child;
(c) committed aggravated assault against a child;
(d) committed neglect of a child that resulted in serious bodily injury or death; or
(e) had parental rights to the child's sibling or other child of the parent involuntarily terminated and the circumstances related to the termination of parental rights are relevant to the parent's ability to adequately care for the child at issue.
(3) Preservation or reunification services are not required for a putative father, as defined in 42-2-201, if the court makes a finding that the putative father has failed to do any of the following:
(a) contribute to the support of the child for an aggregate period of 1 year, although able to do so;
(b) establish a substantial relationship with the child. A substantial relationship is demonstrated by:
(i) visiting the child at least monthly when physically and financially able to do so; or
(ii) having regular contact with the child or with the person or agency having the care and custody of the child when physically and financially able to do so; and
(iii) manifesting an ability and willingness to assume legal and physical custody of the child if the child was not in the physical custody of the other parent.
(c) register with the putative father registry pursuant to Title 42, chapter 2, part 2, and the person has not been:
(i) adjudicated in Montana to be the father of the child for the purposes of child support; or
(ii) recorded on the child's birth certificate as the child's father.
(4) A judicial finding that preservation or reunification services are not necessary under this section must be supported by clear and convincing evidence.
(5) If the court finds that preservation or reunification services are not necessary pursuant to subsection (2) or (3), a permanency hearing must be held within 30 days of that determination and reasonable efforts must be made to place the child in a timely manner in accordance with the permanency plan and to complete whatever steps are necessary to finalize the permanent placement of the child.
(6) If reasonable efforts have been made to prevent removal of a child from the home or to return a child to the child's home but continuation of the efforts is determined by the court to be inconsistent with the permanency plan for the child, the department shall make reasonable efforts to place the child in a timely manner in accordance with the permanency plan and to complete whatever steps are necessary to finalize the permanent placement of the child. Reasonable efforts to place a child permanently for adoption or to make an alternative out-of-home permanent placement may be made concurrently with reasonable efforts to return a child to the child's home. Concurrent planning may be used.
(7) When determining whether the department has made reasonable efforts to prevent the necessity of removal of a child from the child's home or to reunify families that have been separated by the state, the court shall review the services provided by the agency including, if applicable, protective services provided pursuant to 41-3-302.
History: En. 10-1311 by Sec. 7, Ch. 328, L. 1974; amd. Sec. 21, Ch. 100, L. 1977; R.C.M. 1947, 10-1311(4), (5); amd. Sec. 4, Ch. 659, L. 1985; amd. Sec. 11, Ch. 609, L. 1987; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 696, L. 1991; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 112, L. 1993; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 362, L. 1993; amd. Sec. 13, Ch. 458, L. 1995; amd. Sec. 3, Ch. 501, L. 1997; amd. Sec. 7, Ch. 516, L. 1997; amd. Sec. 9, Ch. 566, L. 1999; amd. Sec. 5, Ch. 83, L. 2001; amd. Secs. 8, 18(3), Ch. 281, L. 2001; amd. Sec. 9, Ch. 311, L. 2001; Sec. 41-3-403, MCA 1999; redes. 41-3-423 by Sec. 17(2), Ch. 281, L. 2001; amd. Sec. 5, Ch. 555, L. 2003; amd. Sec. 31, Ch. 449, L. 2005.