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Tulalip Tribes of Washington Codes and Regulations

Amended: 2004

Ordinance 113 - Dog Control


1. Definitions

a. Running At Large. A dog running at large means any dog found within the boundaries of the Tulalip Indian Reservation on public property or on the property of persons other than the person owning or keeping the dog unless the dog is accompanied by some person exercising control thereof through the use of a leash or chain not more than six (6) feet in length.

b. Animal Control Authority. Animal Control Authority means any Tribal Police Officer or any other person or organization so designated by the Tulalip Tribal Board of Directors or by the Chief of the Tribal Police to perform the functions of this Subchapter. It shall also include any Forestry Department officer. Animal shelter and destruction services shall be performed in accordance with the agreement between the City of Everett and the Tulalip Housing Authority entered April 7, 1992.

c. Stray Dogs. A stray dog is a dog with no owner's identification upon it and whose owner cannot be ascertained upon reasonable inquiry.

d. Vicious Dog. Vicious dog means any dog over the age of six (6) months which:

1. Unprovoked, inflicts bites on a human or a domestic animal, either on public or private property;

2. Unprovoked, chases or approaches a person or domestic animal upon the street, sidewalks, or any public or private property in a menacing fashion or apparent attitude of attack;

3. It is known propensity, tendency or disposition to attack unprovoked, to cause injury, or otherwise to threaten the safety of humans or domestic animals on any public or private property; or

4. Any dog partly or wholly of any of the “Pit Bull Dog” or “Rottweiler” breeds, which are deemed and declared inherently dangerous.

e. Proper Enclosure. Proper enclosure is a securely confined, locked pen, kennel, or structure upon the premises of the owner of such dog. Confinement shall be accomplished by means of a substantial fence or similar enclosure, set back at least ten (10) feet from property lines, sidewalks, and streets, and of sufficient strength and height to prevent the dog from escaping therefrom, and shall be locked and secured to prevent entry of young children and other dogs. If the pen or structure has no bottom secured to the sides, the sides must be embedded into the ground no less than one (1) foot. The pen or enclosure shall be structurally sound and maintained in good repair, and shall have a top, if necessary, to prevent a dog from escaping and shall also provide protection from the elements for the dog.

f. Owner. Owner means any person, firm, corporation, organization, or department possessing, harboring, keeping, having an interest in, or having control or custody of an animal.

g. Pit Bull Dog or Rottweiler Dog. “Pit bull dog” or “Rottweiler dog” shall mean any dog which exhibits those distinguishing characteristics which:

1. Substantially conform to the standards established by the American Kennel Club for American Staffordshire Terriers, Staffordshire Bull Terriers, or Rottweilers; or

2. Substantially conform to the standards established by the United Kennel Club for American Pit Bull Terriers or Rottweilers.

The standards of the American Kennel Club and the United Kennel Club referred to in Appendix A shall remain on file with the Tulalip Tribes and are available through the Tulalip Housing Authority. Technical deficiencies in the dogs’ conformance to the standards set by the American Kennel Club and the United Kennel Club shall not be construed to indicate that the subject dog is not a “pit bull dog” or “Rottweiler dog” under this ordinance.


2. Running At Large

a. Limitations. No person owning or having control or custody of any dog shall allow such dog to run at large within the boundaries of the Tulalip Indian Reservation.

b. Seizure. Any dog found running at large in violation of this Subchapter shall be subject to seizure by the Animal Control Authority.

c. Stray Dogs. The Animal Control Authority shall seize stray dogs, of undetermined ownership, and dispose of such dogs through adoption or destruction of such dogs.

d. Offense and Enforcement. If ownership of the dog may be reasonably ascertained or is known: (1st) First Violation: The dog shall be returned to the owner along with a written warning citation; (2nd) Second Violation: A citation will be issued and the owner or keeper charged with an offense with a fine of not less than $10.00 and not more than $50.00, plus any expenses incurred in the seizure of such dog. (3rd) Third Violation: Conviction of the owner or keeper shall result in the disposal of the dog through adoption or destruction by the Animal Control Authority, a fine of not less than $50.00 and not more than $150.00, plus any expenses incurred in the seizure and destruction of such dog.

e. Animal Control Authority Unable to Safely Seize. Any dog of fierce, dangerous or vicious propensities found running at large and cannot be safely seized, such dog may be destroyed by the Animal Control Authority.


3. Disturbances and Harassment

a. Frequent Howling and Barking. No person shall own, keep or harbor any dog within the boundaries of the Tulalip Indian Reservation which by loud, continued or frequent howling, yelping, barking, or making of other noises shall unreasonably annoy, disturb, or endanger the health, welfare, or repose of any person or neighbor.

b. Females in Heat. The owners or keeper of a female dog in heat kept or found within the boundaries of the Tulalip Indian Reservation shall cause such animal to be penned or enclosed in such a manner as to preclude other animals from attaching such female animal or being attached to it.

c. Chasing Vehicles. No person shall permit, suffer, or allow a dog to chase, run after or jump at vehicles lawfully using public streets, avenues, alleys, and ways within the Tulalip Indian Reservation.

d. Jumping and Barking at Pedestrians. No person shall keep, harbor, permit, or allow dog that frequently or habitually snarls or growls at or snaps or jumps upon or threatens persons lawfully upon the public sidewalks, streets, alleys, or public places within the Tulalip Indian Reservation.

e. Harassing Livestock and Domestic Animals. No owner shall permit or allow their dog to chase, bite, or injure any livestock or other domestic animal or game animal on the Tulalip Indian Reservation. It shall be the duty of the owner of such dog, upon notification of that fact by the owner of such livestock or other domestic animal or by an Animal Control Authority, to keep such dog in a proper enclosure.


4. Vicious Dogs

a. Requirement of Physical Restraint. No person shall keep, own or possess within the boundaries of the Tulalip Indian Reservation any vicious dog unless muzzled and restrained by a substantial chain or leash and under the physical restraint of a responsible person or confined in a proper enclosure as defined in Section 1(e) in such a way as to prevent it from biting any human being, livestock, domestic animal, or game animal; nor permit such dog to run at large at any time.

b. Right to Destroy. Any person shall have the right to destroy immediately any dog engaged in the process of injuring or harassing livestock or other domestic or game animals or threatening or inflicting harm to any person, or inflicting serious harm to personal or tribal property.

c. Registration, Identification, and Insurance of Vicious Dog. It is unlawful for an owner to have a vicious dog on the Reservation without a certificate of registration issued under this section. The Animal Control Authority shall issue a certificate of registration to the owner of a vicious dog if the owner presents to the authority sufficient evidence of:

1. A proper enclosure, as defined in Section 1(e) to confine a vicious dog and the posting of the premises with a clearly visible warning sign that there is a vicious dog on the property. In addition the owner shall conspicuously display a sign with a warning symbol that warns children of the presence of a vicious dog; and

2. A surety bond issued by a surety insurer in a form acceptable to the Animal Control Authority in the sum of at least $50 000.00 payable to any person injured by the vicious dog; or

3. A policy of liability insurance such as homeowners insurance in the amount of at least $50,000 insuring the owner for any personal injuries inflicted by the vicious dog.

d. Declaration of Vicious Dog. An Animal Control Authority shall identify and classify potentially vicious dogs. The Animal Control Authority may find and declare a dog vicious if the Animal Control Authority has probable cause to believe that the dog falls within the definition set forth in Section 1(d). Probable cause may be based upon:

1. The written complaint of a person who is willing to testify that he or she witnessed the dog acting in a manner that causes it to fall within the definition of vicious dog;

2. Dog bite reports filed with an Animal Control Authority;

3. Actions of the dog witnessed by any Animal Control Authority; or

4. Other substantial evidence.

e. Written Notice. Upon the Animal Control Authority’s determination that probable cause exists to believe that a dog is vicious, the Animal Control Authority may issue a written notice to the owner of the dog. The notice shall contain the following:

1. The name and address of the owner of the dog;

2. A brief description of the dog;

3. A brief statement of why the dog has been found to be vicious dog;

4. The requirements for restraint of the dog, as determined by Section 4(a), and that these requirements must be complied with within 48 hours;

5. The criminal penalty for violation of the requirements for restraint imposed by Tribal Code, including a statement that, if the requirements are not timely met, the Animal Control Authority has the authority to issue a criminal citation or report such noncompliance to the Tribal attorney’s office, which has the authority to initiate a criminal action; and

The notice shall be served in the standard process of notice described in Title 4.4 of the Tulalip Tribal Code.

f. Violation. Any dog that has previously been declared a vicious dog is in violation of this ordinance if:

1. The dog is not validly registered under Section 4 (c); or

2. The owner does not secure and maintain liability insurance coverage required under Section 4 (c)(3); or

3. The dog is not maintained in the proper enclosure; or

4. The dog is outside of the dwelling of the owner or outside of the proper enclosure and not under the physical restraint of a responsible person.

5. The dog attacks and inflicts harm on any person , livestock, game, or domestic animal.

g. Enforcement. Any owner who keeps his/her dog in violation will be subject to:

1. Immediate confiscation and destruction of the dog by an Animal Control Authority.

2. A fine of not less than $100 and no more than $500.


5. Duty of Owner to Destroy Marauding Dog

It shall be the duty of any person owning or keeping any dog or dogs which shall be found killing any livestock or other domestic animal or game animal to kill such dog or dogs within forty-eight hours after being notified of that fact by the owner of such livestock or domestic animal or by an Animal Control Authority. If such owner or keeper of a dog or dogs shall fail or neglect to comply with the provision of this section, it shall be lawful for an Animal Control Authority to kill such dog or dogs or for the owner of such livestock or domestic animal to kill such dog or dogs if found running at large.


6. Directing Dog with Malicious Intent

No person shall direct, cause, encourage, allow, or otherwise aid or assist any dog to threaten, charge at, intimidate, bite, harass, menace, or attack any person within the Tulalip Indian Reservation.


7. Cruelty to Animals

It shall be unlawful to purposely or knowingly:

1. Torture, torment, mutilate, cruelly beat or kill, or seriously overwork an animal; or

2. Fail to provide necessary food, drink, air, light, space, shelter, or care for an animal in one's custody; or

3. Abandon an animal in one's custody, or

4. Transport or confine an animal in a cruel manner; or

5. Kill, injure, or administer poison to an animal without legal privilege to do so; or

6. Cause one mammal to fight with another.

a. Right to Intervene. An Animal Control Authority shall have the power to intervene to prevent the perpetration of any above act of cruelty upon any animal and may seize the animal for its safety until conditions are again safe for the animal.

b. Veterinary and Scientific Research Exempt. It is a defense to prosecution under this section that the conduct of the actor toward the animal was an accepted veterinary practice or directly related to a bonafide experimentation for scientific research provided that if the animal is to be destroyed, the manner employed will not be unnecessarily cruel unless directly necessary to the veterinary purpose or scientific research involved


8. Use of Dog in Illegal Activity

No person shall keep, maintain, control, or retain any dog in conjunction with, or for the purpose, whether in whole or in part, of aiding, abetting, or conducting any illegal activity or committing any crime within the Tulalip Indian Reservation.


9. Liability of Owners

Every person owning or keeping a dog shall be liable in damages for any injury committed by such dog and it shall not be necessary in any action brought therefor to allege or prove that such dog was of a vicious or mischievous disposition or that the owner or keeper thereof knew that it was vicious or mischievous. However, proof of provocation of an attack by any injured person shall be a complete defense to any action for damages.


10. Abandonment

It shall be unlawful for any person to abandon any dog within the boundaries of the Tulalip Indian Reservation or for any owner or keeper of a dog to neglect to furnish adequate food or care for said dog.


11. Identification and Registration

Any dog found or kept within the boundaries of the Tulalip Indian Reservation must be registered and have an identification tag issued by the Animal Control Authority attached to the dog's collar.


12. Offense

It shall be unlawful and prohibited for any person to do any act the performing of which is prohibited under this Chapter or to fail to do any act the performance of which is required under this Chapter.


13. Enforcement Against Persons Subject to Tribal Criminal Jurisdiction

Unless stated otherwise in this code, the procedures established for criminal offenses under this Code shall be utilized for violations of this Chapter committed by persons subject to Tribal criminal jurisdiction. In the event a defendant pleads guilty or is found guilty of committing an offense the Court may impose all or any of the following penalties:

a. (1st) First Offense: a fine of not less than $25.00 nor more than $200.00, or a jail term of not less than one (1) day nor more than one (1) week, or both, and forfeiture of any articles or animals seized by reason of illegal activities prohibited by this Chapter, under the procedures established in Chapter 2-3 of this Code;

b. (2nd) Second Offense: a fine of not less than $200.00 nor more than $500.00, a jail term of not less than one (1) week nor more than six (6) months, or both, and forfeiture of any articles or animals seized by reason of illegal activities prohibited by this Chapter, under the procedures established in Chapter 2-3 of this Code.


14. Enforcement Against Persons Not Subject to Tribal Criminal Jurisdiction

The Tulalip Tribes may bring an action for a civil penalty against any person who is alleged to have engaged in an activity which is in violation of this Chapter and who is not subject to Tribal criminal jurisdiction. The Tulalip Tribes may bring an action for forfeiture of any articles or animals seized by reasons of use in activities prohibited under this Chapter. Such penalty and forfeiture actions shall be brought under the procedures established in Chapter 2-3 of this Code. Any person violating the provisions of this Chapter shall be subject to exclusion from the Reservation under the applicable Chapter of this Code.


Appendix A: American Kennel Club

Rottweiler

General Appearance: The ideal Rottweiler is a medium large, robust and powerful dog, black with clearly defined rust markings. His compact and substantial build denotes great strength, agility and endurance. Dogs are characteristically more massive throughout with larger frame and heavier bone than bitches. Bitches are distinctly feminine, but without weakness of substance or structure.

Size, Proportion, Substance: Dogs--24 inches to 27 inches. Bitches--22 inches to 25 inches, with preferred size being mid-range of each sex. Correct proportion is of primary importance, as long as size is within the standard's range. The length of body, from prosternum to the rearmost projection of the rump, is slightly longer than the height of the dog at the withers, the most desirable proportion of the height to length being 9 to 10. The Rottweiler is neither coarse nor shelly. Depth of chest is approximately fifty percent (50%) of the height of the dog. His bone and muscle mass must be sufficient to balance his frame, giving a compact and very powerful appearance. Serious Faults: Lack of proportion, undersized, oversized, reversal of sex characteristics (bitchy dogs, doggy bitches).

Head: Of medium length, broad between the ears; forehead line seen in profile is moderately arched; zygomatic arch and stop well developed with strong broad upper and lower jaws. The desired ratio of backskull to muzzle is 3 to 2. Forehead is preferred dry, however some wrinkling may occur when dog is alert. Expression is noble, alert, and self-assured. Eyes of medium size, almond shaped with well fitting lids, moderately deep-set, neither protruding nor receding. The desired color is a uniform dark brown. Serious Faults--Yellow (bird of prey) eyes, eyes of different color or size, hairless eye rim. Disqualification--Entropion. Ectropion. Ears of medium size, pendant, triangular in shape; when carried alertly the ears are level with the top of the skull and appear to broaden it. Ears are to be set well apart, hanging forward with the inner edge lying tightly against the head and terminating at approximately mid-cheek. Serious Faults--Improper carriage (creased, folded or held away from cheek/head). Muzzle--Bridge is straight, broad at base with slight tapering towards tip. The end of the muzzle is broad with well-developed chin. Nose is broad rather than round and always black. Lips-Always black; corners closed; inner mouth pigment is preferred dark. Serious Faults--Total lack of mouth pigment (pink mouth). Bite and Dentition--Teeth 42 in number (20 upper, 22 lower), strong, correctly placed, meeting in a scissors bite--lower incisors touching inside of upper incisors. Serious Faults--Level bite; any missing tooth. Disqualifications--Overshot, undershot (when incisors do not touch or mesh); wry mouth; two or more missing teeth.

Neck, Topline, Body: Neck--Powerful, well muscled, moderately long, slightly arched and without loose skin. Topline--The back is firm and level, extending in a straight line from behind the withers to the croup. The back remains horizontal to the ground while the dog is moving or standing. Body--The chest is roomy, broad and deep, reaching to elbow, with well-pronounced forechest and well sprung, oval ribs. Back is straight and strong. Loin is short, deep and well muscled. Croup is broad, of medium length and only slightly sloping. Underline of a mature Rottweiler has a slight tuck-up. Males must have two normal testicles properly descended into the scrotum. Disqualification--Unilateral cryptorchid or cryptorchid males. Tail--Tail docked short, close to body, leaving one or two tail vertebrae. The set of the tail is more important than length. Properly set, it gives an impression of elongation of topline; carried slightly above horizontal when the dog is excited or moving.

Forequarters: Shoulder blade is long and well laid back. Upper arm equal in length to shoulder blade, set so elbows are well under body. Distance from withers to elbow and elbow to ground is equal. Legs are strongly developed with straight, heavy bone, not set close together. Pasterns are strong, springy and almost perpendicular to the ground. Feet are round, compact with well-arched toes, turning neither in nor out. Pads are thick and hard. Nails short, strong and black. Dewclaws may be removed.

Hindquarters: Angulation of hindquarters balances that of forequarters. Upper thigh is fairly long, very broad and well muscled. Stifle joint is well turned. Lower thigh is long, broad and powerful, with extensive muscling leading into a strong hock joint. Rear pasterns are nearly perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, hind legs are straight, strong and wide enough apart to fit with a properly built body. Feet are somewhat longer than the front feet, turning neither in nor out, equally compact with well arched toes. Pads are thick and hard. Nails short, strong, and black. Dewclaws must be removed.

Coat: Outer coat is straight, coarse, dense, of medium length and lying flat. Undercoat should be present on neck and thighs, but the amount is influenced by climatic conditions. Undercoat should not show through outer coat. The coat is shortest on head, ears and legs, longest on breeching. The Rottweiler is to be exhibited in the natural condition with no trimming. Fault-- Wavy coat. Serious Faults--Open, excessively short, or curly coat; total lack of undercoat; any trimming that alters the length of the natural coat. Disqualification--Long coat.

Color: Always black with rust to mahogany markings. The demarcation between black and rust is to be clearly defined. The markings should be located as follows: a spot over each eye; on cheeks; as a strip around each side of muzzle, but not on the bridge of the nose; on throat; triangular mark on both sides of prosternum;on forelegs from carpus downward to the toes; on inside of rear legs showing down the front of the stifle and broadening out to front of rear legs from hock to toes, but not completely eliminating black from rear of pasterns; under tail; black penciling on toes. The undercoat is gray, tan, or black. Quantity and location of rust markings is important and should not exceed ten percent of body color. Serious Faults--Straw-colored, excessive, insufficient or sooty markings; rust marking other than described above; white marking any place on dog (a few rust or white hairs do not constitute a marking). Disqualifications--Any base color other than black; absence of all markings.

Gait: The Rottweiler is a trotter. His movement should be balanced, harmonious, sure, powerful and unhindered, with strong forereach and a powerful rear drive. The motion is effortless, efficient, and ground covering. Front and rear legs are thrown neither in nor out, as the imprint of hind feet should touch that of forefeet. In a trot the forequarters and hindquarters are mutually coordinated while the back remains level, firm and relatively motionless. As speed increases the legs will converge under body towards a centerline.

Temperament: The Rottweiler is basically a calm, confident and courageous dog with a selfassured aloofness that does not lend itself to immediate and indiscriminate friendships. A Rottweiler is self-confident and responds quietly and with a wait-and-see attitude to influences in his environment. He has an inherent desire to protect home and family, and is an intelligent dog of extreme hardness and adaptability with a strong willingness to work, making him especially suited as a companion, guardian and general all-purpose dog. The behavior of the Rottweiler in the show ring should be controlled, willing and adaptable, trained to submit to examination of mouth, testicles, etc. An aloof or reserved dog should not be penalized, as this reflects the accepted character of the breed. An aggressive or belligerent attitude towards other dogs should not be faulted. A judge shall excuse from the ring any shy Rottweiler A dog shall be judged fundamentally shy if, refusing to stand for examination, it shrinks away from the judge. A dog that in the opinion of the judge menaces or threatens him/her, or exhibits any sign that it may not be safely approached or examined by the judge in the normal manner, shall be excused from the ring. A dog that in the opinion of the judge attacks any person in the ring shall be disqualified.

Summary

Faults: The foregoing is a description of the ideal Rottweiler Any structural fault that detracts from the above described working dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation. Disqualifications: Entropion, ectropion. Overshot, undershot (when incisors do not touch or mesh); wry mouth; two or more missing teeth. Unilateral cryptorchid or cryptorchid males. Long coat. Any base color other than black; absence of all markings. A dog that in the opinion of the judge attacks any person in the ring. Approved May 8, 1990. Effective June 28, 1990

United Kennel Club

History: Sometime during the nineteenth century, dog fanciers in England, Ireland, and Scotland began to experiment with crosses between Bulldogs and Terriers, looking for a dog that combined the gameness of the terrier with the strength and athleticism of the Bulldog. The result was a dog that embodied all of the virtues attributed to great warriors: strength, indomitable courage, and gentleness with loved ones. Immigrants brought these bull and terrier crosses to the United States. The American Pit Bull Terrier's many talents did not go unnoticed by farmers and ranchers who used their APBTs for protection, as catch dogs for semi-wild cattle and hogs, to hunt, to drive livestock, and as family companions. Today, the American Pit Bull Terrier continues to demonstrate its versatility, competing successfully in Obedience, Tracking, Agility, Protection, and Weight Pulls, as well as Conformation. The United Kennel Club was the first registry to recognize the American Pit Bull Terrier. U.K.C. founder C. Z. Bennett assigned U.K.C. registration number 1 to his own APBT, Bennett's Ring in 1898.

General Appearance: The American Pit Bull Terrier is a medium-sized, solidly built, shortcoated dog with smooth, well-defined musculature. This breed is both powerful and athletic. The body is just slightly longer than tall, but bitches may be somewhat longer in body than dogs. The length of the front leg (measured from point of elbow to the ground) is approximately equal to one-half of the dog's height at the withers. The head is of medium length, with a broad, flat skull, and a wide, deep muzzle. Ears are small to medium in size, high set, and may be natural or cropped. The relatively short tail is set low, thick at the base and tapers to a point. The American Pit Bull Terrier comes in all colors and color patterns. This breed combines strength and athleticism with grace and agility and should never appear bulky or muscle-bound or fine-boned and rangy.

Characteristics: The essential characteristics of the American Pit Bull Terrier are strength, confidence, and zest for life. This breed is eager to please and brimming over with enthusiasm. APBTs make excellent family companions and have always been noted for their love of children. Because most APBTs exhibit some level of dog aggression and because of its powerful physique, the APBT requires an owner who will carefully socialize and obedience train the dog. The breed's natural agility makes it one of the most capable canine climbers so good fencing is a must for this breed. The APBT is not the best choice for a guard dog since they are extremely friendly, even with strangers. Aggressive behavior toward humans is uncharacteristic of the breed and highly undesirable. This breed does very well in performance events because of its high level of intelligence and its willingness to work. The American Pit Bull Terrier has always been capable of doing a wide variety of jobs so exaggerations or faults should be penalized in proportion to how much they interfere with the dog's versatility.

Head: The APBT head is unique and a key element of breed type. It is large and broad, giving the impression of great power, but it is not disproportionate to the size of the body. Viewed from the front, the head is shaped like a broad, blunt wedge. When viewed from the side, the skull and muzzle are parallel to one another and joined by a well defined, moderately deep stop. Supraorbital arches over the eyes are well defined but not pronounced. The head is well chiseled, blending strength, elegance, and character.

Skull: The skull is large, flat or slightly rounded, deep, and broad between the ears. Viewed from the top, the skull tapers just slightly toward the stop. There is a deep median furrow that diminishes in depth from the stop to the occiput. Cheek muscles are prominent but free of wrinkles. When the dog is concentrating, wrinkles form on the forehead, which give the APBT his unique expression.

Muzzle: The muzzle is broad and deep with a very slight taper from the stop to the nose, and a slight falling away under the eyes. The length of muzzle is shorter than the length of skull, with a ratio of approximately 2:3. The topline of the muzzle is straight. The lower jaw is well developed, wide and deep. Lips are clean and tight. Faults: Snipey muzzle; flews; weak lower jaw.

Teeth: The American Pit Bull Terrier has a complete set of evenly spaced, white teeth meeting in a scissors bite. Fault: Level bite. Serious Faults: Undershot, or overshot bite; wry mouth; missing teeth (this does not apply to teeth that have been lost or removed by a veterinarian).

Nose: The nose is large with wide, open nostrils. The nose may be any color.

Eyes: Eyes are medium size, round to almond-shaped, and set well apart and low on the skull. All colors are equally acceptable except blue, which is a serious fault. Haw should not be visible. Serious Faults: Bulging eyes; both eyes not matched in color; blue eyes.

Ears: Ears are high set and may be natural or cropped without preference. If natural, semi-prick or rose are preferred. Prick or flat, wide ears are not desired.

Neck: The neck is of moderate length and muscular. There is a slight arch at the crest. The neck widens gradually from where it joins the skull to where it blends into well laid-back shoulders. The skin on the neck is tight and without dewlap. Faults: Neck too short and thick; thin or weak neck; ewe neck; dewlap.

Forequarters: The shoulder blades are long, wide, muscular, and well laid back. The upper arm is roughly equal in length to the shoulder blade and joins it at an apparent right angle. The forelegs are strong and muscular. The elbows are set close to the body. Viewed from the front, the forelegs are set moderately wide apart and perpendicular to the ground. The pasterns are short, powerful, straight, and flexible. When viewed in profile, the pasterns are nearly erect. Faults: Upright or loaded shoulders; elbows turned outward or tied-in; down at the pasterns; front legs bowed; wrists knuckled over; toeing in or out.

Body: The chest is deep, well filled in, and moderately wide with ample room for heart and lungs, but the chest should never be wider than it is deep. The forechest does not extend much beyond the point of shoulder. The ribs extend well back and are well sprung from the spine, then flattening to form a deep body extending to the elbows. The back is strong and firm. The topline inclines very slightly downward from the withers to a broad, muscular, level back. The loin is short, muscular and slightly arched to the top of the croup, but narrower than the rib cage and with a moderate tuck-up. The croup is slightly sloping downward.

Hindquarters: The hindquarters are strong, muscular, and moderately broad. The rump is well filled in on each side of the tail and deep from the pelvis to the crotch. The bone, angulation, and musculature of the hindquarters are in balance with the forequarters. The thighs are well developed with thick, easily discerned muscles. Viewed from the side, the hock joint is well bent and the rear pasterns are well let down and perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, the rear pasterns are straight and parallel to one another. Faults: Narrow hindquarters; hindquarters shallow from pelvis to crotch; lack of muscle; straight or over angulated stifle joint; cow hocks; sickle hocks; bowed legs.

Feet: The feet are round, proportionate to the size of the dog, well arched, and tight. Pads are hard, tough, and well cushioned. Dewclaws may be removed. Fault: Splayed feet.

Tail: The tail is set on as a natural extension of the topline, and tapers to a point. When the dog is relaxed, the tail is carried low and extends approximately to the hock. When the dog is moving, the tail is carried level with the backline. When the dog is excited, the tail may be carried in a raised, upright position (challenge tail), but never curled over the back (gay tail). Fault: Long tail (tail tip passes beyond point of hock). Serious faults: Gay tail (not to be confused with challenge tail); kinked tail. Disqualification: Bobbed tail.

Coat: The coat is glossy and smooth, close, and moderately stiff to the touch. Faults: Curly, wavy, or sparse coat. Disqualification: Long coat.

Color: Any color, color pattern, or combination of colors is acceptable.

Height and Weight: The American Pit Bull Terrier must be both powerful and agile so actual weight and height are less important than the correct proportion of weight to height. Desirable weight for a mature male in good condition is between 35 and 60 pounds. Desirable weight for a mature female in good condition is between 30 and 50 pounds. Dogs over these weights are not to be penalized unless they are disproportionately massive or rangy.

Gait: The American Pit Bull Terrier moves with a jaunty, confident attitude, conveying the impression that he expects any minute to see something new and exciting. When trotting, the gait is effortless, smooth, powerful, and well coordinated, showing good reach in front and drive behind. When moving, the backline remains level with only a slight flexing to indicate suppleness. Viewed from any position, legs turn neither in nor out, nor do feet cross or interfere with each other. As speed increases, feet tend to converge toward center line of balance. Faults: Legs not moving on the same plane; legs over reaching; legs crossing over in front or rear; rear legs moving too close or touching; rolling; pacing; paddling; sidewinding; hackney action; pounding.

Disqualifications: Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Unilateral or bilateral deafness. Bobbed tail. Albinism.

Note: Although some level of dog aggression is characteristic of this breed, handlers will be expected to comply with U.K.C. policy regarding dog temperament at U.K.C. events.

Rottweiler

History: The Rottweiler was known as the "butcher dog of Rottweil," a title earned by driving cattle to market over the Alps in the Roman times. The breed was developed from the mastiff type of dog used for herding and guarding. In recent years the breed's popularity has increased in America as the dogs are being used for police work, tracking, obedience competition and as a brave family pet. The Rottweiler was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1950.

General Appearance: The Rottweiler is an above average-size dog. It is black with brown markings; with small pendant ears and a short cropped tail. It is a powerfully built dog, giving the impression of strength, courage and agility.

Characteristics: Brave, powerful, faithful and a good guard dog. Strong willed.

Head & Skull: The head is of medium length. Between the ears the skull is broad. Viewed from the side the forehead line is moderately arched. The skin on the head should not be loose although it is allowed to form moderate wrinkles when the dog is attentive. The muzzle is fairly deep; with a level topline. The length of the muzzle is not longer than the length from stop to occiput; the desired ratio of backskull to muzzle is 3 to 2. The flews are black and firm; they fall gradually away and towards the corners of the mouth, which do not protrude excessively. Serious fault: Total lack of mouth pigment.

Eyes: The almond-shaped eyes are medium-sized and moderately deep-set. They are dark brown in color. The eyelids are well fitting. Serious faults: Yellow eyes. Eyes of different color or size. Hairless eye rim.

Ears: The medium-sized ears are triangular pendants, set high and wide apart on the head, lying flat with the inner edge against the head; ending at about mid-cheek.

Teeth: A full complement of strong, white teeth meet in a scissors bite. The incisors of the lower jaw must touch the inner surface of the upper incisors. Serious faults: Even bite. One missing tooth.

Nose: The nose is broad and black in color.

Neck: The powerful, well-muscled, moderately long neck is slightly arched and free from throatiness.

Forequarters: The long shoulder blades are well-laid back. The upper arm is equal in length to that of the shoulder blade.

Forelegs: The strongly-developed, muscular legs have straight, heavy bone. The elbows are set well under the body. The pasterns are strong and springy and set almost perpendicular to the ground.

Body: The chest should be roomy, broad and deep; ribs well sprung. The depth of the brisket will be about 50% of the shoulder height. The back should be straight and strong and not too long. Ratio of shoulder height to length of body is 9 to 10. The loins are short, deep and strong; the flanks should not be tucked up. The croup should be slightly sloping and broad. The distance from the withers to the elbow is the same as the distance from the elbow to the ground.

Hindquarters: The angulation of the hindquarters is balanced with that of the forequarters.

Hind Legs: When viewed from the rear, the hind legs are straight and wide enough to accommodate the body width. The well-muscled, fairly long upper thigh is very broad. The lower thigh is also well-muscled and is long, broad and powerful. The stifles are well-bent. The angular hocks are without exaggeration and completely vertical. The rear pasterns are nearly perpendicular to the ground.

Feet: The feet are strong, round and compact, with well-arched toes. The hind feet are somewhat longer than the front. The pads are hard and thick. The toenails are short, strong and black. Front dewclaws may be removed; rear dewclaws are removed.

Tail: The tail is docked at the first or second vertebrae. It is carried horizontally, giving the impressions that it is an extension of the topline. It may be carried slightly above the topline when the dog is excited.

Height: Height should always be considered in relation to the general appearance of the dog and within the accepted range. Measured at the withers, adult males are 24" to 27"; adult females are 22" to 25". The preferred size is mid-range.

Coat: Consists of a top coat and undercoat. The outer coat should be of medium length, coarse and flat. The undercoat, which is essential on the neck and thighs, should not show through the outer coat. The hair may be a little longer on breechings. It is shortest on the head, ears and legs.

Color: The Rottweiler is black with clearly defined markings on the cheeks, muzzle, chest, and legs as well as over both eyes and the area beneath the tail. The markings range in color from a rich tan to mahogany brown and do not exceed ten percent of the total body color. The undercoat may be gray, tan or black. Serious faults: Straw-colored. White markings anywhere on the dog. Disqualification: Albinism.

Gait: The Rottweiler's natural gait is a trot. Movement conveys an impression of suppleness, endurance and purpose. The back remains firm and stable; there is a powerful hind thrust and good stride. Movement should be unrestricted, harmonious and positive. As speed increases, the dog single tracks.

Disqualification: Extreme viciousness or shyness. Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Entropionism. Ectropionism. Two or more missing teeth. Overshot. Undershot. Wry mouth. Base color other than black. Absence of all markings. Albinism. Long coat.

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